The following are the Independent directors of the Company:

    • 1. Dr Jeetainder Roy Gaur
    • 2. Dr D C Sastri

i. Appointment

The initial term of the appointment of Independent Directors shall be for a period of 5 years. The Company may disengage Independent Directors prior to completion of the Term subject to compliance of relevant provisions of the 2013 Act. As Independent Directors, they will not be liable to retire by rotation. Reappointment at the end of the Term shall be based on the recommendation of the Nomination and Remuneration Committee and subject to the approval of the Board and the shareholders. The reappointment would be considered by the Board based on the outcome of the performance evaluation process and the directors continuing to meet the independence criteria. The directors may be requested to be a member / Chairman of any one or more Committees of the Board which may be constituted from time to time.

ii. Role of Independent Directors

Independent Directors have a key role in the entire mosaic of corporate governance. It is increasingly being recognized that independent directors occupy a pivotal position with respect to the progress of the company. In fact Independent Directors are considered as both a safeguard and a significant source of competitive advantage. Independent Directors may be viewed as repositories of vigilance intended to ensure that the promoters and executive directors carry on the activities of the company in conformity with the interests of the shareholder as a whole. Alternatively, independent directors could be viewed as strategic advisors to the board, critical to maximizing revenue and overall value of the company.

Companies act & SEBI rules includes a guide to professional conduct for independent directors, which crystallizes the role of independent directors by prescribing facilitative roles, including offering independent judgement on issues of strategy, performance and key appointments, and taking an objective view on performance evaluation of the board. Independent directors are additionally required to satisfy themselves on the integrity of financial information to balance the conflicting interests of all stakeholders and in particular to protect the rights of the minority shareholders.

iii. Remuneration

As Independent Directors, they shall be paid sitting fees for attending the meetings of the Board and the Committees of which they are members. The sitting fees for attending each meeting of the Board and its Committees would be as determined by the Board from time to time.

iv. Other obligations and compliances

The Independent Directors will be required to execute / confirm with respect to the following documentation on a periodic basis:

    • i. Confirmation that they are not disqualified to act as a Directors of the Company in terms of the Companies Act, 2013
    • ii. Declaration of Independence in terms of the Companies Act, 2013
    • iii. Disclosures under the Company Code for Prevention of Insider Trading
    • iv. Code of Conduct for Directors of the Company
    • v. Code of Conduct for Independent Directors as per Schedule IV of the Companies Act, 2013
    • vi. Disclosure of change in interest in companies where they are appointed / ceased as a Director or Key Managerial Personnel
    • vii. Confirmation that their directorships in companies do not conflict with the interest of the Company.

V Code of Conduct

During the period of the appointment, the Independent Directors will be bound by the Company Code of Directors and such other codes of conduct under applicable laws including the Companies Act, 2013 and the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992.

VI. Training and Development

The Company may, if required, conduct formal training program for its Independent Directors. The Company may, as may be required, support Directors to continually update their skills and knowledge and improve their familiarity with the company and its business. The Company will fund/arrange for training on all matters which are common to the whole Board.

VII. Performance Appraisal / Evaluation Process

As members of the Board, their performance as well as the performance of the entire Board and its Committees will be evaluated annually. Evaluation of each director shall be done by all the other directors. The criteria for evaluation shall be disclosed in the Company’s Annual Report. However, the actual evaluation process shall remain confidential and shall be a constructive mechanism to improve the effectiveness of the Board / Committee.

VIII. Disclosures, other directorships and business interests

During the Term, they agree to promptly notify the Company of any change in their directorships, and provide such other disclosures and information as may be required under the applicable laws. They also agree that upon becoming aware of any potential conflict of interest with their position as Independent Directors of the Company, they shall promptly disclose the same to the Chairman and the Compliance Officer. During their Term, they agree to promptly provide a declaration under Section 149(7) of the 2013 Act, upon any change in circumstances which may affect their status as an Independent Director.

XI Liability

An Independent Directors will be liable only in respect of such acts of omission or commission by a company which had occurred with their knowledge, attributable through Board process, and with their consent or connivance or where they had not acted diligently.

X. Review Process

The performance of individual Directors and the whole Board and its committees is evaluated annually. The Independent Directors will have to make themselves available for carrying out the annual / periodic performance review of themselves and the Board committees where they are a part thereof for review purpose. Independent Directors have to further confirm that they will extend their contribution to review of the Board of Directors individually as well as for its various committees on behalf of / as desired by the Board of Directors on an annual / periodic time frame. If, in the interim, there are any matters which cause an Independent Directors concern about their role, they can discuss them with the Chairman as soon as it is appropriate.


The Board has appointed various committees to assist it in discharging its responsibilities. The Board has adopted charters setting forth the roles and responsibilities of each of the committees as well as qualifications for committee membership, procedures for committee members' appointment and removal, committee structure and operations and reporting to the Board. The Board may constitute new committees or dissolve any existing committee as it deems necessary for the discharge of its responsibilities.

Audit Committee:

A. Brief description of terms of reference.

1. Authority to investigate any matter pertaining to the items specified in section 177 of the Companies Act or referred to it by the Board
2. Investigate any activity within its terms of reference
3. Oversight of the Company's financial reporting process and the disclosure of its financial information to ensure that the financial statement is correct, sufficient and credible
4. Reviewing with management the annual financial statements
5. Reviewing with the management, external and internal auditors, and the adequacy of internal control systems.
6. Reviewing the adequacy of internal audit function, including the structure of the internal audit department, staffing and seniority of the official heading the department, reporting structure coverage and frequency of internal audit
7. Reviewing the Company's financial and risk management policies
8. Periodic discussion with the auditors about internal control systems, scope of audit including the observations of the auditors and review the quarterly, half-yearly, and annual financial statements before submissions to the Board.

B. Reviewing the following information:

1. The Management Discussion and Analysis of financial condition and results of operations;
2. Statement of significant related party transactions (as defined by the Audit Committee), submitted by management;
3. Management letters/letters of internal control weaknesses issued by the statutory auditors;
4. Internal audit reports relating to internal control weaknesses;
5. Reviewing the appointment, removal and terms of remuneration of the Chief internal auditor / internal auditor(s); and
6. statement of deviations:
(a) quarterly statement of deviation(s) including report of monitoring agency, if applicable, submitted to stock exchange(s) in terms of Regulation 32(1) of the Securities and Exchange Board of India (Listing Obligations and Disclosure Requirements) Regulations, 2015.
(b) annual statement of funds utilized for purposes other than those stated in the offer document/prospectus/notice in terms of Regulation 32(7) of the Securities and Exchange Board of India (Listing Obligations and Disclosure Requirements) Regulations, 2015>

C. Composition:

    • Dr Jeetainder Roy Gour, Chairman
    • Dr D C Sastri
    • Dr A N Singh

Nomination & Remuneration Committee:

A. The broad terms of reference of the Nomination and Remuneration Committee are as under:
1. Recommend to the board the set up and composition of the board and its committees. including the “formulation of the criteria for determining qualifications, positive attributes and independence of a director? The committee will consider periodically reviewing the composition of the board with the objective of achieving an optimum balance of size, skills, independence, knowledge, age, gender and experience.
2. Recommend to the board the appointment or reappointment of directors
3. Devise a policy on board diversity
4. Recommend to the board appointment of key managerial personnel (“KMP?as defined by the Act) and executive team members of the Company (as defined by this committee).
5. Carry out evaluation of every director’s performance and support the board and independent directors in evaluation of the performance of the board, its committees and individual directors. This shall include “formulation of criteria for evaluation of independent directors and the board?
6. Recommend to the board the remuneration policy for directors, executive team or key managerial personnel as well as the rest of the employees.
7. On an annual basis, recommend to the board the remuneration payable to the directors and oversee the remuneration to executive team or key managerial personnel of the Company.
8. Oversee familiarisation programmes for directors
9. Performing such other duties and responsibilities as may be consistent with the provisions of the committee charter

B. Composition:

    • Dr D C Sastri, Chairman
    • Dr Jeetainder Roy Gour
    • Smt Padma Singh

Stakeholders Relationship Committee:

A. The Committee shall consider and resolve the grievances of the security holders of the Company including complaints related to transfer of shares, non-receipt of annual report and non-receipt of declared dividends or any other matters related to security holders.

B. Composition:

    • Dr D C Sastri, Chairman
    • Dr Jeetainder Roy Gour
    • Smt Padma Singh


The members of the Board of Directors of Celestial Biolabs Ltd. acknowledge and accept the scope and extent of their duties as Directors. They have a responsibility to carry out their duties in an honest and businesslike manner and within the scope of their authority, as set forth in the laws of India as well as in the Memorandum and Articles of Association of the Company. They are entrusted with and are responsible for the oversight of the assets and business affairs of Celestial Biolabs Ltd. in an honest, fair, diligent and ethical manner. As Directors, they must act within the bounds of the authority conferred upon them and with the duty to make and enact informed decisions and policies in the best interests of the Company. The Board of Directors has adopted the following Code of Conduct and the Directors and senior managers are expected to adhere to the standards of care, loyalty, good faith and the avoidance of conflicts of interest that follow.

Code of Conduct of Board Members and senior managers will:

    • Act in the best interests of, and fulfill their fiduciary obligations to the Company;
    • Act honestly, fairly, ethically and with integrity;
    • Conduct themselves in a professional, courteous and respectful manner and not take improper advantage of their position;
    • Will deal fairly with all stakeholders;
    • Always adhere and conform to the various statutory and mandatory regulations / guidelines applicable to the operations of the Company avoiding violations or non-conformities
    • Act in good faith, responsibly, with due care, competence and diligence, without allowing their independent judgment to be subordinated;
    • Comply with all applicable laws, rules and regulations;
    • Not use any information or opportunity received by them in their capacity as Directors or senior management in a manner that would be detrimental to the Company’s interests;
    • Act in a manner to enhance and maintain the reputation of the Company;
    • Sisclose any personal interest that they may have regarding any matters that may come before the Board and abstain from discussion, voting or otherwise influencing a decision on any matter in which the concerned Director has or may have such an interest;
    • Abstain from discussion, voting or otherwise influencing a decision on any matters that may come before the board in which they may have a conflict or potential conflict of interest;
    • Respect the confidentiality of information relating to the affairs of the Company acquired in the course of their service as Directors or senior management, except when authorized or legally required to disclose such information;
    • Not use the Company’s property or position for personal gain;
    • Ascertain and ensure that the Company has an adequate functional vigil mechanism and to ensure that the interests of a person who uses such mechanism are not prejudicially affected on account of such use.
    • Will not accept from or give to stakeholders gifts or other benefits not customary in normal social intercourse;
    • Not use confidential information acquired in the course of their service as Directors or senior management for their personal advantage or for the advantage of any other entity;
    • Help create and maintain a culture of high ethical standards and commitment to compliance;

A Director or senior manager who has concerns regarding compliance with this Code should raise those concerns with the Chairman of the Board and the Chairman of the Audit Committee, who will determine what action shall be taken to deal with the concern.

For this purpose “senior management?shall mean members of management one level below the executive directors and shall include all functional heads. Directors and senior managers will annually sign a confirmation that they have read, have complied with and will continue to comply with this Code.



Section 177 of the Companies Act, 2013 requires every listed company and such class or classes of companies, as may be prescribed to establish a vigil mechanism for the directors and employees to report genuine concerns in such manner as may be prescribed. The Company has adopted a Code of Conduct for Directors and Senior Management Personnel (“the Code?, which lays down the principles and standards that should govern the actions of the Directors and Senior Management Personnel. Any actual or potential violation of the Code, howsoever insignificant or perceived as such, is a matter of serious concern for the Company. Such a vigil mechanism shall provide for adequate safeguards against victimization of persons who use such mechanism and also make provision for direct access to the chairperson of the Audit Committee in appropriate or exceptional cases. Effective October 1, 2014, Clause 49 of the Listing Agreement between listed companies and the Stock Exchanges, inter alia, provides for a mandatory requirement for all listed companies to establish a mechanism called “Whistle Blower Policy?for employees to report to the management instances of unethical behaviour, actual or suspected, fraud or violation of the Company’s code of conduct.


The Vigil (Whistle Blower) Mechanism aims to provide a channel to the Directors and employees to report genuine concerns about unethical behaviour, actual or suspected fraud or violation of the Codes of Conduct or policy. The Company is committed to adhere to the highest standards of ethical, moral and legal conduct of business operations and in order to maintain these standards. The Company also encourages its employees who have genuine concerns about suspected misconduct to come forward and express these concerns without fear of punishment or unfair treatment. The mechanism provides adequate safeguards against victimization of Directors and employees to avail of the mechanism and also provides direct access to the Chairman of the Audit Committee in exceptional cases. This neither releases employees from their duty of confidentiality in the course of their work nor can it be used as a route for raising malicious or unfounded allegations about a personal situation.


The Policy is an extension of the Code of Conduct for Directors & Senior Management Personnel and covers disclosure of any unethical and improper or malpractices and events which have taken place/ suspected to take place involving:

    • Breach of the Company’s Code of Conduct
    • Breach of Business Integrity and Ethics
    • Breach of terms and conditions of employment and rules thereof
    • Intentional Financial irregularities, including fraud, or suspected fraud
    • Deliberate violation of laws / regulations
    • Gross or Wilful Negligence causing substantial and specific danger to health, safety and environment
    • Manipulation of Company’s data / records
    • Pilferation of confidential / propriety information
    • Gross Wastage / misappropriation of Company’s funds / assets


All Directors and Employees of the Company are eligible to make Protected Disclosures under the Policy in relation to matters concerning the Company.


All Protected Disclosures should be reported in writing by the complainant as soon as possible, not later than 30 days after the Whistle Blower becomes aware of the same and should either be typed or written in a legible handwriting in English.

The Protected Disclosure should be submitted under a covering letter signed by the complainant in a closed and secured envelope and should be super scribed as “Protected disclosure under the Whistle Blower policy?or sent through email with the subject “Protected disclosure under the Whistle Blower policy? If the complaint is not super scribed and closed as mentioned above, the protected disclosure will be dealt with as if a normal disclosure.

All Protected Disclosures should be addressed to the Vigilance Officer of the Company or to the Chairman of the Audit Committee in exceptional cases.

The contact details of the Vigilance Officer are as under:
Mr. Arvind Kumar (Vigilance Officer)
M/s.Celestial Biolabs Limited
Plot No. 59, Road No. 12,
TSIIC Tech Park, IDA
Nacharam, Hyderabad ?500 076,
Telanagan.Ph : 040-64565544/65552697


    • All Protected Disclosures under this policy will be recorded and thoroughly investigated. The Vigilance Officer will carry out an investigation either himself / herself or by involving any other Officer of the Company / Committee constituted for the same / an outside agency before referring the matter to the Audit Committee of the Company.
    • The Audit Committee, if deems fit, may call for further information or particulars from the complainant and at its discretion, consider involving any other / additional Officer of the Company and / or Committee and / or an outside agency for the purpose of investigation.
    • The investigation by itself would not tantamount to an accusation and is to be treated as a neutral fact finding process.
    • The investigation shall be completed normally within 90 days of the receipt of the protected disclosure and is extendable by such period as the Audit Committee deems fit.
    • Any member of the Audit Committee or other officer having any conflict of interest with the matter shall disclose his / her concern / interest forthwith and shall not deal with the matter.

DECISION: If an investigation leads to a conclusion that an improper or unethical act has been committed, the Chairman of the Audit Committee shall recommend to the Board of Directors of the Company to take such disciplinary or corrective action as it may deem fit. Any disciplinary or corrective action initiated against the Subject as a result of the findings of an investigation pursuant to this Policy shall adhere to the applicable personnel or staff conduct and disciplinary procedures.

REPORTING: A quarterly report with number of complaints received under the Policy and their outcome shall be placed before the Audit Committee and the Board. A complainant who makes false allegations of unethical & improper practices or about alleged wrongful conduct of the Subject to the Vigilance Officer or the Audit Committee shall be subject to appropriate disciplinary action in accordance with the rules, procedures and policies of the Company

RETENTION OF DOCUMENTS: All Protected Disclosures in writing or documented along with the results of investigation relating thereto shall be retained by the Company for a minimum period of seven years

AMENDMENT: The Company reserves its right to amend or modify this Policy in whole or in part, at any time without assigning any reason whatsoever. However, no such amendment or modification will be binding on the Employees unless the same is notified to the Employees in writing.


Non executive Directors are paid Sitting fee, for attending the meetings of Board of Directors & Committees, thereof in accordance with the provisions of Companies Act.


This policy is formed as a part of Corporate Governance Framework as per requirement of Clause 49 of the Listing Agreement entered by the Company with the Stock exchanges in India and also in terms of Section 188 of the Companies Act, 2013 and the rules made thereunder.

1. Purpose of this policy:

    • A. Celestial Biolabs Limited (“Celestial?or “Company? is governed, amongst others, by the rules and regulations framed by Securities Exchange Board of India (“SEBI?. SEBI has mandated every listed company to formulate a policy on materiality of Related Party Transactions and also on dealing with Related Party Transactions.
    • B. Accordingly, the Company has formulated this policy on materiality of Related Party Transactions and on dealing with Related Party Transactions (“Policy?. This Policy regulates all transactions between the Company and its Related Parties.
    • C. The Audit Committee will review the Policy periodically and may amend the same from time to time and propose the same to the Board for approval.

2. Definitions

A. “Act?shall mean the Companies Act, 2013 and includes any amendment thereof. All capitalized terms used in this Policy but not defined herein shall have the meaning assigned to such term in the Act and the Rules thereunder and the Listing Agreement, as amended from time to time.

3. Review and approval of Related Party Transaction

Approval of related party transactions
A. Audit Committee

    • 3.A.1. All Related Party Transactions shall require prior approval of the Audit Committee either at a meeting or by resolutions by circulations. Any member of the committee who has potential interest in any related party transaction will abstain from discussion and voting on the approval of the related party transaction.
    • 3.A.2. Audit Committee shall have all rights to call for information/documents in order to understand the scope of the proposed related party transactions.
    • 3.A.3. The Audit Committee may grant omnibus approval for related party transactions which are repetitive in nature and subject to such criteria/conditions as mentioned under clause 49 and such other conditions as it may consider necessary in line with this policy and in the interest of the Company. Such omnibus approval shall be valid for a period not exceeding one year and shall require fresh approval after the expiry of one year.
    • 3.A.4. Audit Committee shall review, on a quarterly basis, the details of related party transactions entered into by the Company pursuant to the omnibus approval. In connection with any review of a related party transaction, the Committee has authority to modify or waive any procedural requirements of this policy.
    • 3.A.5. A related party transaction entered into by the Company, which is not under the omnibus approval or otherwise pre-approved by the Committee, will be placed before the Committee for ratification.

B. Board of Directors

    • 3.B.1.If the Committee determines that a Related Party Transaction should be brought before the Board, or if the Board in any case elects to review any such matter or it is mandatory under any law for the Board to approve a Related Party Transaction, then the Board shall consider and approve the Related Party Transaction at a meeting and the considerations set forth above shall apply to the Board’s review and approval of the matter, with such modification as may be necessary or appropriate under the circumstances.
    • 3.B.2.All the related party transactions prescribed under Section 188 of the Act, which are not in the ordinary course of business or not at Arm’s Length Basis and all material related party transactions shall be brought before the Board and the Board shall consider and approve the related party transaction at a meeting.
    • 3.B.3.Any member of the Board who is interested or has potential interest (as mentioned under section 184(2) of the Act), in any related party transaction shall not be present at the meeting during discussions on the subject matter of the resolution relating to such related party transaction.

C. Shareholders

3.C.1. If a related party transaction is (i) a material transaction as per clause 49, or (ii) not in the ordinary course of business, or not at arm’s length price and exceeds certain thresholds prescribed under the Companies Act, 2013, it shall require shareholders?approval by a special resolution. In such a case, any member of the Company who is a related party, shall not vote on resolution passed for approving such related party transaction.

D. Reporting of related party transactions

3.D.1. Every contract or arrangement, which is required to be approved by the Board/shareholders under this Policy, shall be referred to in the Board’s report to the shareholders along with the justification for entering into such contract or arrangement

4. Criteria for approval of a Related Party Transaction by the Board / Audit Committee:
4.A.1.To review a Related Party Transaction, the Board / Audit Committee will be provided with all relevant material information of the Related Party Transaction, including the terms of the transaction, the business purpose of the transaction, the benefits to the Company and to the Related Party, and any other relevant matters.

The information provided shall specifically cover the following:
i. the name of the related party and nature of relationship;
ii. the nature, duration of the contract and particulars of the contract or arrangement;
iii. the material terms of the contract or arrangement including the value, if any;
iv. any advance paid or received for the contract or arrangement, if any;
v. the manner of determining the pricing and other commercial terms, both included as part of contract and not considered as part of the contract;
vi. whether all factors relevant to the contract have been considered, if not, the details of factors not considered with the rationale for not considering those factors;
vii. the persons/authority approving the transaction; and viii. any other information relevant or important for the Committee to take a decision on the proposed transaction.

4.A.2.In determining whether to approve a Related Party Transaction, the Board/ Audit Committee shall consider the following factors, amongst others, to the extant relevant to the Related Party Transaction:-

I. Whether the transaction is in the ordinary course of business of the company.
II. Whether the terms of the Related Party Transaction are fair and on arm’s length basis to the Company and would apply on the same basis if the transaction did not involve a Related Party;
III. Whether there are any undue compelling business reasons for the Company to enter into the Related Party Transaction and the nature of alternative transactions, if any;
IV. Whether the Related Party Transaction would affect the independence of the directors/KMP;
V. Whether the proposed transaction includes any potential reputational risk issues that may arise as a result of or in connection with the proposed transaction;
VI. Where the ratification of the Related Party Transaction is allowed by law and is sought from the Committee, the reason for not obtaining the prior approval of the Committee and the relevance of business urgency and whether subsequent ratification would be detrimental to the Company;
VII. Whether the Related Party transaction would present an improper conflict of interest for any director or Key Managerial Personnel of the Company, taking into account the size of the transaction, the overall financial position of the director, Executive Officer or other Related Party, the direct or indirect nature of the director’s, Key Managerial Personnel’s or other Related Party’s interest in the transaction and the ongoing nature of any proposed relationship and any other factors the Board/Committee deems relevant.

5. Limitation and Amendment

In the event of any conflict between the provisions of this Policy and of the Act or Listing Agreement or any other statutory enactments, rules, the provisions of such Act or Listing Agreement or statutory enactments, rules shall prevail over this Policy. Any subsequent amendment / modification in the Listing Agreement, Act and/or applicable laws in this regard shall automatically apply to this Policy.


Email Address For Grievance Redressal And Other Relevant Details: ansingh@celestialbiolabs.com

Compliance Officer
M/s.Celestial Biolabs Limited
Plot No. 59, Road No. 12,
TSIIC Tech Park, IDA Nacharam,
Hyderabad ?500 076,



The Board of Directors (the “Board? of CELESTIAL BIOLABS LIMITED. (the “Company? has adopted the following policy with regard to preservation of Documents. This Policy has been formulated in accordance with Regulation 9 of the SEBI (Listing Obligation and Disclosure Requirements) Regulations, 2015. This Policy shall be known as “Policy for Preservation of Documents?


The purpose of this Policy is to specify the type of document(s) and time period for preservation thereof based on the classification mentioned under Regulation 9 of Listing Regulations, 2015.


The company shall preserve documents as specified hereunder:

A. The documents of permanent nature (listed in Annexure 1)

Documents whose preservation shall be permanent in nature:

S No.



Certificate of incorporation


Certificate for commencement of business


Memorandum and Articles of Association


Agreements made by the Company with Stock Exchanges, RTA, Depositories, etc.


Minutes of Board Meeting


Minutes of General Meeting


Minutes of Various Committee Meeting


Register and Index of Members under Companies Act, 2013


Register of Contracts under Companies Act, 2013


Register of Charges under Companies Act, 2013


Register of Transfer of shares under Companies Act, 2013


Registers of investments in securities not held in the name of the Company  under Companies Act, 2013


Any other documents as may be required to maintain in terms of applicable law(s) maintained and preserved from time to time.

B. The documents of the company to be preserved for specified time period after completion of the relevant transactions (listed in Annexure-2) shall be preserved by the Company for the term not less than eight year after completion of the relevant transactions

Documents with preservation period of not less than eight years after completion of the relevant transactions:

S No.



Books of Accounts


Annual Returns under Companies Act, 2013


Instrument creating charge or modification (from the date of satisfaction of charge) under Companies Act, 2013


Return of declaration in respect of beneficial interest in any share under Companies Act, 2013


All notices in form MBP ?1 received from Directors and KMPs alongwith any amendment thereto


All show cause notice or any other notice received from any statutory , government departments, Judicial or Quasi-judicial authority etc


Income Tax and other returns filed under Income Tax Act, 1961


Any other documents as may be required to maintain in terms of applicable law(s) maintained and preserved from time to time.